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Dengue fever

What is dengue fever?

Dengue is a mosquito borne viral disease characterized by high grade fever, maculopapular rash, severe headache, pain behind the eye, nausea, vomiting, and muscle and body pain.

What is the vector for the transmission of dengue fever? 

Dengue virus is transmitted by bite of mosquito vector known as Aedes aegypti.

How the patient with dengue virus infection usually presents?

Dengue virus infection may be asymptomatic or may lead to Dengue fever (DF), Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), Dengue shock syndrome (DSS).

Organization Chart

What are the clinical features of dengue fever?

The clinical features of dengue fever depend on the age of the patient:

AGE

CLINICAL FEATURES

Infants and Children

Non-specific febrile disease.
Maculopapular rash.

Older Child and Adults

Mild Flu like illness.
High fever, severe headache ,pain behind the eyes, muscle and bone or joint pain, nausea , vomiting, rash

What are the laboratory findings found in a patient suffering from dengue fever?

Following are the findings which one can find in a patient with dengue fever:

1) Leucopenia (low white blood cells)
2) Thrombocytopenia (low platelets)

How a person feels after recovery from dengue infection?
DF is a self limiting disease and recovery may be associated with prolonged fatigue
and depression ,especially in adults.

What are the characterstics of Dengue hemorrhagic fever?
Typical cases of DHF are characterized by the following four major clinical manifestations:

  1. High fever  -  acute onset, high and continuous, lasting more than two days
  2. Hemorrhagic manifestations  -  a positive Tourniquet test or symptoms such as epistaxis (bleeding from the nose), gingival bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding,  blood in urine
  3. Enlarged liver
  4. Circulatory failure

What are the laboratory findings of dengue hemorrhagic fever? 

Following are the laboratory findings found in a patient suffering from DHF:

1) Thrombocytopenia (platelets count <100,000/mm3).
2) Haemoconcenteration (increase in haematocrit by 20% or more over baseline).

 What are the clinical features of Dengue shock syndrome?

The patient with dengue shock syndrome presents with history of fever for 2-7 days Then the condition of the patient deteriorates as the fever begin to fall .The patient then may show signs of circulatory failure as the skin becomes cold ,blotchy and congested. Ultimately the patient may enter a critical stage of shock.

What are the factors responsible for dengue fever outbreaks?

The occurrence of DF outbreaks is linked to number of factors such as density of vector (Aedes aegypti), source (an infected febrile person) and presence of susceptible hosts in the community.

What factors increase the density of Aedes aegypti?

Aedes aegypti is commonly found in urban dwellings ,both indoors and outdoors.  Therefore, fast urbanization and dense population facilitates the progress of outbreak

 

 

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