Colistin and Polymyxin B Susceptibility Testing for Carbapenem-Resistant and mcr-Positive Enterobacteriaceae: Comparison of Sensititre, MicroScan, Vitek 2, and Etest with Broth Microdilution.
Colistin and polymyxin B remain part of the last line of antibiotics for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Current joint EUCAST-CLSI recommendations are for broth microdilution (BMD) to be performed for MIC testing of colistin. Commercial susceptibility testing methods were evaluated and compared against the reference BMD, using a susceptibility breakpoint of ≤2 mg/liter for both colistin and polymyxin B. Seventy-six Enterobacteriaceae were included, of which 21 were mcr-1 positive (18 Escherichia coli isolates, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, and 1 Enterobacter aerogenes isolate). Rates of essential agreement (EA) of colistin test results between BMD and Vitek 2, Sensititre, and Etest were 93.4%, 89.5%, and 75.0%, respectively. Rates of EA of polymyxin B test results between BMD and Vitek 2, Sensititre, and Etest were 96.1%, 96.1%, and 48.7%, respectively. A positive MIC correlation with a categorical agreement of >90% was achieved for Sensititre (colistin Spearman’s ρ = 0.863, and polymyxin B Spearman’s ρ = 0.877) and Vitek 2 (polymyxin B [only] Spearman’s ρ = 0.8917). Although a positive MIC correlation (Spearman’s ρ = 0.873) with the reference method was achieved for colistin testing with Vitek 2, categorical agreement was <90%, with very major error rates of 36%. Correlation with the Etest MIC was lower, with very major error rates of 12% (colistin) and 26.1% (polymyxin B). MicroScan (colistin) categorical agreement was 88.2%, with a very major error rate of 4%. Colistin MICs for 15 of the 21 mcr-1-positive isolates were >2 mg/liter, and polymyxin MICs for 17 of them were >2 mg/liter by broth microdilution. The use of a lower breakpoint of ≤1 mg/liter further improves detection of mcr-1 for all testing methods. However, further data on the correlation between MICs and clinical outcome are required to determine the most suitable breakpoint to guide clinical management.