About the Bacteria: Diptheria is an acute bacterial disease caused by toxin producing bacteria Corneybacterium diphtheriae which colonizes the mucous membranes.
Transmission: This bacteria is transmitted between humans via droplets, secretions and direct contact with cutaneous lesions
Clinical features: Toxin production by these bacteria results in characteristic lesions in affected mucous membranes, this potent toxin may cause respiratory or non respiratory symptoms depending on the site of infection it may result in obstruction of airways, myocarditis or nephritis.
Diagnosis: Timely diagnosis is very important and treatment should be started immediately based on clinical presentation and sending the proper specimen to clinical laboratory, final diagnosis is made by isolation of toxigenic bacteria from clinical specimens.
Treatment: Antitoxins and antibiotics are used to treat diptheria . An effective vaccine is available against diptheria
Diptheria situation in Pakistan: WHO reports >1290 deaths and 12500 injuries in flood affected areas in Pakistan and thousands of cases of diarrhea, skin and eye infections, typhoid, malaria and COVID are also being reported.
10 deaths due to diptheria are also reported in last two months and 39 confirmed cases are also reported in the Sindh province